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Hybrid Brayton/Rankine turbogenerator

Pochari Technologies’ has invented a turbogenerator capable of switching from Rankine cycle mode to Brayton cycle mode. This allows users of Pochari Technologies’ local power generation system to periodically utilize liquid or gaseous fuels when liquid or gaseous fuels become available. Turbomachinery is expensive to design and manufacture, therefor it is wise to minimize the number of machines onsite. By utilizing a hybrid system consumers would save considerable sums over choosing a dual Rankine and Brayton system.

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small scale comprehensive energy system

Pochari Technologies’ believes in the ability of individuals, households and business to develop complete and comprehensive energy independence, all the way from simple electrical power for lighting, electronics and heating to producing high energy dense fuels for transportation needs. Pochari Technologies’ achieves this by utilizing proven and mature waste-energy technologies for creating low cost electricity, subsequently using affordable Alkaline electrolysis for producing hydrogen gas for use in Pochari Technologies’ gas turbine powered land based vehicles utilizing our innovative hydraulic drivetrain. Pochari Technologies’ SCES systems will totally transform, democratize and decentralize energy production from the current established method.

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multi-spool rankine turbogenerator

Pochari Technologies’ has designed a novel and innovative multistage steam turbine. Pochari Technologies’ multi-spool rankine turbogenerator is designed to allow each individual turbine stage to rotate at its own optimal speed reducing losses from turbulence. On a conventional steam turbine, all stages are connected to the main shaft, forcing each turbine stage to rotate at the exact same speed. By freeing each turbine stage to spin freely at its own optimal speed, isentropic efficiency is increased, mainly resulting from optimizing the velocity differential between the airfoil and fluid thereby reducing turbulence inherent to turbomachinery. Studies show that multi-spool compressors raise efficiency by up to 5%. Much research effort has gone into developing multi-spool compressors for gas turbines, results show considerable increases in efficiency. Therefore we believe this concept can be successfully applied to steam turbogenerator technology. Each turbine wheel is connected to an independent axial flux generator. Each subsequent stage will operate at lower speed, so the generator output will progressively decline, so each generator’s electrical capacity is tailored to the specific speed of each turbine stage. A bulk of the electrical output will come from the initial high-speed turbines.

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Electric aerial crane system

Pochari technologies’ has developed a revolutionary type of aerial crane system. The concept utilizes a coaxial rotor system, powered by electric motors receiving electrical powers from a ground-based power unit through electrical cables that remain attached to the lifter craft. The concept allows for much greater mobility and versatility than a conventional wheeled or fixed tower crane does. Although not as flexible as a conventional helicopter due to its electrical cables, it can be thought of as a combination between a conventional heavy-lift helicopter and a ground-based crane. The ground-based power unit consists of a truck with an electrical power plant mounted on providing continuous electrical power to 1500 feet electrical cables. The electrical cables are aluminum alloy 1315 to minimize weight and sheathed with high strength composite sheathing providing additional tensile strength and abrasion resistance.
The concept in total consists of three major components.
A ground-based highly mobile power unit carried by an all-wheel drive truck.
An intermediate hovercraft to carry the weight of the cable and keep the cable away from the load being carried by the lifter.
The lifter craft: A remote-controlled unmanned coaxial heavy lift fully electric rotorcraft designed solely to lift heavy loads. It has no cabin thus no fuselage reducing weight.
The conventional rotorcraft has not been competitive with cranes for heavy lift work aside for a very selective few situations that necessitate the use of a rotorcraft as road access or terrain prohibit the use of a truck crane or tower crane. Despite the almost total freedom to use a heavy-lift rotorcraft in any terrain bypassing obstacles and flying items directly to their destination, the rotorcraft has been constrained by excessive operating costs stemming from high overhaul cost of major components. Turbine engines have historically had high fuel consumption, and aviation fuels mainly jet fuel are typically quite expensive. Insurance is also a major contributor to high rotorcraft cost. In addition these aircraft not utilized very much, due to their limited application outside of heavy lift work, contributing to higher operating cost. Another factor is that most rotorcraft are certified by aviation safety agencies requiring a huge investment by manufacturers which is often hard to recuperate. This cost is passed onto to consumers. The combination of all these factor leads to a situation where available heavy lift rotorcraft are exorbitantly expensive to purchase, maintain and operate. A heavy lift helicoper with a 20,000 lb lift capacity can cost in excess of $20,000,000. The equivalent of 20 brand new large tower crane. For simple economic reasons the heavy lift helicopter has failed to carve a large market share in the global heavy lifting industry.
Pochari Hyperlift technology is not an aircraft, rather it’s an aerial crane system. It uses 100% sustainable electric power for it’s propulsion needs, eliminating the expensive Brayton cycle turbine technology. Electric motors are extremely competitive with conventional combustion engines. With power-weight ratios often exceeding that of state of the art turboshafts, requiring little to no maintenance and possessing a useful life significantly longer than that any combustion engine available. The electric engines is an aircraft designer’s dream. The major disadvantage of electric propulsion is the power supply. In the absence of an onboard turbogenerator, getting sufficient electrical power to the aircraft remains a huge challenge. Current energy storage technology, dominated by Japanese made Lithium ion batteries are not able to store enough electricity for their high installed mass. A pure lithium ion powered aircraft would not have sufficient lift capacity to do any useful work. Pochari Technologies has adopted a simple yet innovative approach to this challenge. By using lightweight Aluminum alloy power cables connected directly to the aircraft we can provide ample electrical power directly to the aircraft without any onboard generation required, saving considerable weight even over a traditional turbo machinery powerplant. The weight of the cables is tolerable. For 1000 feet of 1500 amp cables, around 1800 lbs is required. 1500 Amps is enough current to power a 2.5 MW or 3,300 HP electric motor.

Pochari Technologies’ Hyperlift concept provides comparable lifting capacity than large tower cranes at maximum radius while allowing for rapid moving of the unit thus allowing for much greater mobility. A conventional tower crane is built onto a concrete pad, requiring another tower crane to assemble. Transportation is often a challenge as individual parts of the tower can be quite large. The crane is typically used for an extensive period of time as moving the crane is incredibly difficult due to significant time required to assembly and disassembly. Although the load capacity at the center of the crane is quite high, at the tip of the arm it is a fraction of the capacity. The Hyperlift Heavy lift craft can carry as much as a large tower crane at tip capacity. 20,000 Lbs is the intended load capacity of Pochari Hyperlift. Thanks to the Hyperlift’s enhanced mobility the potential utilization is much greater, a crane may be stuck on a job site for extended periods not being utilized while Hyperlift can be immediately moved to another job site and put to work. This greater utilization will reduce operating costs and save consumers money by eliminating idle equipment from the job site.
The ground-based power unit can be situation 1500 feet away from the lifter craft.

As can be easily seen from this image a 1500 feet radius is quite large, over 40 acres. If the radius is exceeded the ground power unit can be moved closer.

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electronic actuated rotor head

Pochari Technologies’ has invented a new type of rotorcraft rotorhead in early 2017. This new concept has removed the traditional swashplate-pitch link configuration and replaced it with an innovative direct electronic actuation provided by high durability dual electronic actuators. The rational behind the invention is provided by two major benefits. #1: The elimination the swashplate which uses large bearings that wear out fast and require frequent overhaul. #2 The ability to change the pitch of each rotor independently of each other, reducing noise and vibration.

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HyperLoad™ aerial electric-diesel concept.

Pochari Technologies’ HyperLoad™ AED™ aerial electric-diesel aviation Technology is a highly innovative aviation concept primarily intended for cargo transportation and economy aviation. Pochari Technologies’ believes in the potential of the the diesel engine for aviation propulsion. Modern common rail diesel technology provides reliable and highly efficient power for a wide variety of uses. Aviation is an ideal candidate. Unfortunately, the high installed weight of the diesel powerplant has hindered its success in aviation. Pochari Technologies’ believes it has found a novel solution to this problem By utilizing a highly innovative mid air electric power transmission configuration. The idea behind this technology is to essentially “outsource” the weight of the propulsion system and necessary fuel to a secondary unmanned “charging” aircraft that trails behind the primary aircraft. The AED™ concept is comprised of two major components, the primary and “charger” aircraft. The charger aircraft is a diesel powered ducted fan aircraft providing all of the power for the primary aircraft’s propulsion needs. The charger aircraft is designed solely to provide electrical power to the primary aircraft, it is unmanned, carries no passengers and therefore can carry considerably more fuel providing the greater range potential. The primary aircraft flies in front of the charger aircraft, delegating the mating responsibility to the charger aircraft. This configuration allows rotorcraft to safely connect to the charger aircraft without the obvious safety hazard of the exposed rotors coming in contact with the trailing electrical cable. The primary aircraft can be a conventional fixed wing aircraft, rotorcraft or a tiltrotor. The primary aircraft is equipped with a hybrid electric propulsion system. During takeoff and landing propulsion is provided by on-board conventional turbine engine. Once the aircraft has taken off it connects to the charger aircraft’s electric power supply. The primary aircraft then shuts off its turbine engine and receives direct electrical power to its onboard electric engines for the entirety of the fight. The increased range is a result of the 50% reduction in fuel consumption as a result of the significantly more efficient combustion cycle of diesel engine and the capability to carry more fuel onboard the charger aircraft due to not needing to carry passengers or any load. The reason the more efficient diesel engine is not more commonly used in aviation is because of it’s significantly lower installed power density. This lower power density can be tolerated when used in the AED™ configuration since the charger carries the additional weight of the powerplant, freeing the primary aircraft to carry more passengers or cargo. The primary aircraft needs only to carry enough fuel for take-off, landing and the minimum 45 minutes of flight time for IFR aircraft.
We used a 15,000lb MGTOW twin engine fixed wing propeller aircraft for comparison. This aircraft would likely consume around 800 lbs of fuel per hour. The cruise speed of this hypothetical aircraft is around 350 MPH. For a 2000 miles flight this would result in over 4500 lbs of fuel. Using Pochari Technologies’ AED™ the fuel load would just need to cover the takeoff portion and landing portion of the flight, which represents a small fraction of the total flight time. In addition, sufficient fuel would be needed to safely land in the case of a failure of the electrical connection between the feeder and charger. Overall the weight savings results in a 350% increase in available payload for a 2000 miles flight. The range increase is over 83%. Allowing for a medium size propeller aircraft to potentially fly over the major oceans without sacrificing payload typically required when flying “ferry flights”. In addition the major increases in payload and range, Pochari Technologies’ AED allows for a considerable reduction in direct operating costs as a result of the much less expensive diesel engines being used for primary propulsion as well lower fuel consumption. Conventional aviation turbines are notoriously expensive to operate due to high acquisition and overhaul and due to high fuel consumption. Diesel engines are simple to manufactuer, potentially just as reliable, and a fraction of the cost to purchase and maintain. In addition there exists a much larger supply of maintenance technicians than for turbines engines.
The charger aircraft will utilize high power density generators, powered by twin diesel engines, sending the electrical current via a 50 foot cable directly to the primary aircraft. The cable connection is designed to immediately disconnect in case of an emergency. When not in use the cable is coiled and stored in the primary aircraft. The additional weight of the cable and connection is not significant. The connecting cable trails behind the exposed rotors or propeller eliminating the risk of impact between the cable and propeller. The charger aircraft has no exposed propeller as propulsion is provided via a ducted fan.
Pochari Technologies’ envisions a scenario where the secondary charger aircraft is not owned by the primary aircraft operator, instead, the charger aircraft is rented by the hour during the duration of the flight, this eliminates the need to purchase an additional aircraft. This hourly rental cost would be lower than paying directly for the operating costs of conventional turbine engines. In addition since the charger aircraft is unmanned, certification requirements are less onerous. Using a conventional turbine powered aircraft the range is limited to around 2000 miles and the net payload left after fuel is quite small, as little as 10% of the aircraft’s gross weight. Pochari Technologies’ HyperLoad™ AED™ concept would be incredibly useful for small cargo airlines. By increasing the cargo volume carried during each flight, the revenue potential would be significantly higher, allowing operators to increase profit margins and return on equity. Passenger airlines would also benefit, especially low-cost mass market operators since price sensitivity is very high. This technology could unleash the opportunity for small aircraft to be used for economy flights. Economy aviation primarily uses large “narrowbody” style aircraft that are very expensive to purchase leading to extremely high barriers to entry, making it impossible for small players to enter the market. Although large aircraft can be more efficient in many cases small aircraft can be competitive especially when considering the much lower acquisition and financing cost. Small aircraft have not been competitive for mass market economy aviation primarily due to insufficient revenue generating potential. With HyperLoad™ AED™ technology the revenue potential is greatly increased, thus making smaller aircraft more competitive.

Beyond simple economic factors Pochari Technologies’ AED™ will result in a major reduction in C02 emissions thanks to the much more efficient ad underappreciated diesel cycle engine. Although diesel engines have garnered a bad reputation for their high fine particulate output this issue can be easily mitigated with filtration systems. What cannot be easily mitigated in combustion engines is C02 output, the only realistic way to reduce C02 output is to reduce the amount of fuel being combusted. This is where the diesel cycle shines. The major environmental advantage to the diesel cycle engines is lower specific fuel consumption. Typically small to medium sized turbine engines used in small propeller aircraft will have specific fuel consumption levels of around .55-.6lbs/hp/hr. Compared to .3-.35 for state of the art common rail diesel’s. This is a 76% difference in fuel consumption. Meaning more useful work is produced with less fuel, meaning less oil crude oil extraction, less refining and less net C02 output compared with conventional gas turbines.

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Variable speed compressor gas turbine

Pochari Technologies’ has invented a radically innovative new type of gas turbine.
The traditional gas turbine is comprised of a compressor, combustor and turbine wheel made of many small blades (used to extract energy from the expanding gases). In order to achieve complete and therefore efficient combustion, a high volume of air at a sufficient pressure is required to achieve the optimal mixture of air and fuel. Oxygen, although not a fuel in itself provides the basis of combustion. As anyone who has experimented with fire has learned, if you blow air over a fire you will increase the intensity of the combustion and thus raise the temperature, the fuel source will subsequently be consumed at a faster rate. A greater level of temperature will lead to greater expansion of the gases, creating more pressure and allowing the turbine blades to extract more power, leading to greater thermal efficiency. Industrial waste incinerators for example use large blowers to increase combustion temperature and to achieve a hotter burn, reducing emissions. In a gas turbine, the compressor is directly connected to the turbine unit, which poses an inherent problem. The speed of the compressor and the turbine do not always converge at the same optimal speed. During low turbine operating speed efficiency is much lower. This is partially due to the compressors inability to provide sufficient air flow and pressure. Centrifugal compressors (commonly used on small turbines) tend to only provide peak pressures ratios at very high rotational speed. If gas turbines are to be operated at maximum possible thermal efficiency it must maintain maximum operating speed, making it challenging to provide feasible propulsion for ground based vehicles. This is one of the reasons the gas turbine has not historically been competitive with Otto or Diesel cycle engines. To solve the gas turbine’s issue with efficient operation at varying levels of speed we provide a highly innovative variable speed compressor by utilizing an electric drive system. In addition to solving this issue we also significantly ameliorate another major issue: excessive gas temperature during startup. This is also caused by a lack of airflow from the compressor. During start up fuel is injected at an increasing rate to increase combustion volume and accelerate the turbine. During this time the air fuel ratio mixture is too rich, causing a rapid rise of temperature which causes a situation known as “thermal shock”. This leads to a shorter life span for the turbine blades. A rapid decline in temperature during shut down also leads to the same problem. This is why gas turbine hot section components are commonly given a limited number of “cycles” before replacement is required.
In some cases one cycle is equivalent to an entire hour of continuous operation. The variable speed system will provide high airflow during startup, maintaining optimal temperature. During shut down the operator can run the compressor at full speed to provide cool air to cool the hot turbine section at a slower rate than what would otherwise occur if the engine is immediately shut down. In short Pochari Technologies’ VSCG in addition to providing enhanced efficiency at low operating speed, will also result in major reductions in temperature related fatigue of hot sections components allowing for significant reduction in direct operating costs. Pochari Technologies’ VCSG. The system is comprised of a high speed DC generator connected to the power turbine output shaft prior to the final reduction gearbox. The generator provides electrical current to multiple high speed axial flux motors connected directly to the compressor. A lithium ion battery pack is provided to enable the compressor to be powered at high speed during occasions where insufficient electrical power is being generated by the turbine during startup and spool up.
To summarize Pochari Technologies’ VSGT provides major technical advantages to operations that require the benefits of gas turbine technology but require variable speed. These applications could be powering a heavy duty transport vehicle, combat vehicle or even continuous high power applications that require frequent start up and shut down.