Credit: Christophe Pochari
Credit: Christophe Pochari
All renderings performed in Autodesk Fusion 360.
The rotorcraft like any other technology, has a certain number of subsystems, which together form a broader system.
All technologies that embody a certain degree of intricacy and convolution will generate a large number of relevant subsystems, each with their own unique characteristics and functions.
Each of the subsystems in turn can be optimized, enhanced and modified to further augment the expansive system. The expansive system can be viewed as the culmination of a plethora of specific functions, working synergistically, in a particular order to form a network of unique processes.
Each originally may possess a domain-specific categorization, but undergo sudden or gradual transition to fulfill a broader range of functions. The degree of single-task functioning contrasted to multi-task functioning can be broadly categorization as the “versatility” exhibited by the particular system component.
The processes within the expansive complex in turn are inexorably linked in a series of hierarchical commands.
As a stratified system forming a minimum level of symbiosis and compatibility constitute the essence of the expansive mechanism’s working principle.
The degree of deviation allowable by the specific subsystems can be categorized as the overall “flexibility” tolerated. This can be referred to as “plasticity”, or the ability of the expansive system to accommodate shifts in the order, motion, and pace of the relevant integrants.
Any particular digression from the premeditated course of action can potentially result in ruinous implications for either the particular components, or even the broader expansive system altogether.
One may note the similarity of this description to the cascading principle, where a gradual or sudden deterioration in the functioning of a particular integrant can cause a series of subsequent events in unrelated components, potentially compromising the entire expansive system.
In order to evaluate and assess an expansive system’s sensitivity to this phenomenon, we must evaluate the degree to which the operation of the expansive system is dependent upon, directly or indirectly, upon a linkage, or chain of subsystems, and the degree to which these subsystems suffer congenital vulnerabilities.
In turn, the degree to which components can operate alone, unimpeded from downstream failures can heavily influence the outcome, as the expansive system may be able to tolerate a certain portion of its integrants to remain inoperable, yet retain its ability to operate.
A ranking of the capacity of an expansive system to endure and cope with unanticipated spasmodic fluctuations in the customary activity can be ascertained by evaluating the mentioned above factors:
#1 The degree of reliance upon a series of downstream operations and cycles to achieve the final output. The operation itself may be derived of cycles and process, but who later converges into single function.
#2 The degree of interconnectedness of the individual components. The extent to which an individual component can achieve a particular function without delegating particular tasks to secondary components. A system can form a homogenous structure, by performing all tasks in an all-encompassing manner.
A heterogeneous system is forced by the nature of the particular procedure to consign portions of the procedure to highly specialized components, which by themselves provide only a singular function.
The expansive system’s integrants can be regarded as possessing a varying degree of intra-system functionality in a specific direction or route.
Tasks are performed through defined courses and trajectories. The capacity to deviate from a premediated route and embark upon a surrogate course while retaining a preponderance if its intra-system functionality can be regarded as a decisive factor in evaluating the permissible latitude in the expansive apparatus’s cyclic functioning.
A degree of desultory activity may be engendered upon the utilization of a non-customary itinerary. A minimum degree of plasticity must be ensured and provided to enable a transmutation to take place in a frictionless manner to curtail the unforeseen disruptions caused by variability in the itinerary quality and extent of compatibility with the contents of the subsystem.
Depending on the subsystem function, hermicity may be a requirement to enable the transfer of escapable susbtances, which may directly be performing kinetic functions or energetic transfers.
Partial or full hermeticity demands a temporary barricade to be erected to enable a blockage of substance transfer prior to the beginning of the itinerary transition to minimize of uncontrolled expulsion of reactive substances.
In the case of gravitationally resistive levitational systems, the criticality of ensuring continuous system activity without interruption imposes unique exigencies upon the design of the expansive, integrant, procedural and cyclic design parameters.
Furthermore, an expansive apparatus must generate and administer a segregated chain of commands specifically tailored to the unique exigencies generated by the particular system functions. This chain of command can be thought of as a highly elaborate organizational hierarchy.
This organization hierarchy can be structured in a fashion to ensure a constant flow of data and intelligence gathering by placing intermediate superintending devices within close proximity to operational processes which expend and generate commands which form sequential instructions needed to fulfill their operating nature.
The capacity to ensure uninterrupted communications between the different nodes within the apparatus is a momentous task when exogenous variables are taken into consideration.
Endogenous risk may be generated through internal processes which breakdown, generating hazardous byproducts which can potentially induce breakdown within the individual integrants.
It can be stated that the propagation of exogenous events form the basis for justifying of the strategic mitigation substructure which serves to militate against probabilistic exogenous variables that carry a high degree of inconclusiveness.
Inconclusiveness is the very nature of unpredictability, for this reason an exacting method to assiduously analyze incoming events is importune to form a comprehensive risk evaluation mechanism to perform selective elimination of incoming threatening actors.
It is probable upon further inquiry and analysis that the principle risk is manifested as primarily originating from external sources. These risks may be diverse in nature, possessing unique characteristics which may impose a selective danger to individual components. Certain components by the nature of their composition may be more immune to external degradation than others.
Components are evaluated and treated according to their congenital elementary compositional characteristics which be exploited to further buffer against exogenous risk.
The magnitude of the risk is evaluated based on the capacity to temporarily or permanently disrupt the operating procedures within the expansive apparatus.
It may be desirable to partially or fully encapsulate the apparatus within an isolating shield to achieve partial or full isolation from exogenous sources of compromising actors. A selective barrier can serve as a buffer between sensitive components and their respective source of endangerment.
A hierarchical distribution of derivate functions is analyzed based on an imput-ouput directional perspective.
Gravitational resistive leviation systems can be broadly categorized as being domain-specific or multi-faceted.
Each constituent within the expansive complex as demonstrated earlier performs a domain-specific function. It can be thought as performing within a narrow well-defined context, with clearly set parameters.
The scope of operation, degree of plasticity, was defined as the degree of versatility exhibited by the initial and subsequent functions.
Components serve to generate a directional series of increments, each forming an iteration within a broader package of processes. The direction can be single-pathed or multi-pathed. The number of itineraries admissible is determined by the variability of the carriers within the pathways.
Vertical lift componentry can be broadly classified as falling under the category of kinetic motion systems. Ancillary factors may necessitate additional forms of energetic transfer methods, specifically tailored to enable transmission of kinetic motion through a unique set of obstacles imposed by the inherent complexity found within the expansive complex.
Kinetic and inertial motion can be interpreted as being the derivative of a series of thermal inputs.
Thermal energy is transmutated into kinetic energy via a series of chemical imputs. The biproduct takes shape as a divergent form of energy from the initial constituent of thermal radiant energies.
The derivate is a form of kinetic motion, comprised only of molecular mass, devoid of mechanical or dynamic energy, possessing only embryonic energy.
The intermediate product of kinetic molecule compounds can be thought of as being antecedent to the mechanical kinetic motion derived in the final step.
It serves as only the precursor to a higher form of kinetic energy, yet to have entered the final and stage of stage of transformation.
The multi-step transformation of energies commences as a stable chemical compound and can be characterized as following a progressive trajectory.
The molecular compounds are chosen based on their propensity to engage in a series of atomic level excitation events induced by initial thermal precipitation. Precipitation is required to impose vibratory energy upon the molecular compounds to initiate the reaction event.
The formation of energies can only take place if the needed quantity of reactant
pairs can be sourced. As heavier than air flight vehicles are constraints by the gravimetric to propulsive ratio, the derived source of reactant partners are sourced from the copious supply of ambient compounds circulating throughout the atmosphere.
The reactions which take place are a series of events that can be classified as an oxidative process, consisting of a series of molecular interchanges, precisely described as series of atomic transmutation. The commencing mass content is preserved through the series of atomic interchanges.
An intrinsic and universal constant state of foundational energy can be thought of as being possessed by a series of electrical and magnetic attachments forming elemental compositions that, under exacting conditions, prompted to initiate chain reactions of constant or periodic discharges of potential energy.
The derivatives of the process are expelled from the enclosed reaction chamber enabling a mass-accumulation free process.
The geometric orientation of the complex exists as an aggregation or cluster of individual geometries forming a near uniformly distributed homogenous geometry whose shape is determined by its internal component configurations.
There exists a finite number of elementary or fundamental principles that govern the design and configuration of the expansive systems within the broader vertical lift complex.
These principles can be classified as being governed by fundamental physical laws imposed by natural forces. These stem from organic, thermal, kinetic and chemical properties each producing unique integration and compatibility exigencies forming the basis of design choices.
The second category can be broadly referred to as being manmade in nature. This category can include a wider scope of particular design configurations influenced and governed by the former principles.
The latter principles form a nearly infinite number of design possibilities and variables each influence in part by their relationship with their correlative members. As discussed previously, a systematic order of operation is formed largely by natural forces that impose a strict operational procedure for both the individual integrants and the broader expansive complex as a whole.
An immutable form of consanguinity exists between the constituents within the scope of procedural processes as a byproduct of the commencing requirements.
The order and sequence of operational procedures are contrived based upon strict adherence to the elementary principles which govern the admissible blueprint.
The degree of transgression and infringement permitted to take place from the guiding blueprint is conditional upon the congenital level of the rigidity imposed by ancillary factors derived from exogenous forces beyond the scope of alternation enabled by current techniques.
The origin and nature of exogenous forces produced by the intended operating environment and terrain is unpredictable in nature.
The intended operating scope of the vehicle has to be properly defined in order to ascertain the necessary information to perform domain-specific optimization of the respective componentry and to insure intra-component consanguinity.
The degree of deviation from a defined operating environment is influenced by the extent to which the expansive complex can acclimatize sudden variations imposed by natural fluctuations which have the propensity to take place within the unpredictable ambiance.
I’ve made some recent alterations to VED technology for helicopters. These changes include stretching the capsule from 36″ to 75″ to accommodate a stretcher in the longitudinal direction being offered as an option. In previous versions of VED for EMS operations in mind, the capsule was designed with a stretcher configuration perpendicular to the length of the helicopter. This meant the stretcher, typically being long enough to accommodate a tall person, had to protrude through the doors on each side of the capsule, provisions for this include specially designed doors with a “bubbles” on each side. Although the size of the capsule is nearly 70″ long, only minimal accommodation was needed. This design also posed some additional limitations. The previous design restricted the ability of the medics to freely move between the front and rear section of the fixed portion of the fuselage. This could potential hinder the medics from performing interventions and monitor the patient on both sides of the stretcher. As such, two versions of VED technology will be offered, with the difference being solely the length of the capsule. The image below depicts a VED fuselage configured with a 36″ wide capsule.
Silane is one of the few flammable compounds that readily combusts in a pure CO2 atmosphere producing a pure solid carbon byproduct.
Silane emerges as an attractive solution to dispensing with captured carbon dioxide. Currently, there exists no practical method to convert carbon dioxide to a more easily stored substance.
The principle of this cycle is combusting silane gas in a CO2 or CO2/argon atmosphere, using the CO2 as an oxidizer, producing energy via a supercritical CO2 turbine, emitting solid carbon and silicon dioxide, then separating the silicon dioxide from the solid carbon, to then reuse for other applications.
98% metallurgical grade silicon: $1500/ton, 0.85 per ton of silane
Potential silane cost including reactor capex, chlorine and hydrogen consumption: $3000-3200/ton
1 ton of silane = 2.75 tons/CO2 consumed
Biproducts to resale
1.87 tons silicon dioxide at $750/ton
0.75 tons carbon powder at $700/ton
Total downstream revenue potential: $2530
Potential price per ton of carbon dioxide reduced: $180-250 (no comparable method available to compare cost)
Trisilane is an ideal carbon free fuel as it’s a dense liquid at room temperature and pressure (740 kg/m3), burns efficiently and possesses high energy density (40+ MJ/kg). The only biproduct of combustion is silicon nitrade, a solid. Triilane is ideal for use in external combustion cycles such as S-CO2 Brayton cycles. Heavy duty propulsion applications such as marine and rail require an energy density liquid fuel, the issue is all current carbon free fuels suffer from storage and energy density constraints. Tisilane offers an ideal carbon free propulsion option for heavy duty propulsion. Trisilane is compatible with current liquid infrastructure and holds the title as being the only carbon free liquid fuel, excluding hydrazine, which is considered too toxic. All other carbon free fuels are gaseous or require carbon recycling. Potential power density of supercritical S-CO2 bottoming cycles are 1.4 MW/Ton.
Use of liquid fuel reactors to produce hydrazine for under $500/ton.
0.75-1 ₵/kwh levelized generation cost
Lifetime: 40 years
Planned capacity: 41 mw
Hydrazine production: 1.9 tons per hour
Potential revenue: $81,000,000
Chlore-Alkali membrane electrolyzer: Plant capex: $105,000/tpd $19/ton NaOH/CI ($480 million for 1,680,000 tpy capacity, 15 year before major refurbishment)
Sodium hydroxide: 4.0 ton/ton N2H4: 2500 kwh/ton: $29. (sodium chloride bi-product recycled)
Chlorine: 2.6 ton/ton N2H4: 2500 kwh/ton: $25
0.9 tons NH3 $100/ton: No cost as 240 kg of H2 are produced from electrolyzing sodium chloride
Total: $308/ton N2H4
N2H4 12.58% H2 by weight
Raschig plant cost very minimal: $49/ton N2H4: $12,000,000 for 7,000 tpy (35 year lifetime)
Total electricity consumed: 21,500 kwh/ton N2H4
Salt continuously recycled, sodium hydroxide and chlorine consumed, sodium chloride produced as bi-product of Raschig process then re electrolyzed into sodium hydroxide, closed-loop system!
Net H2 cost: $2.7/kg. PEMFC 2.6x more efficient than SI engine, cost per gallon gasoline equevalent is $1.03/gal!
Current market price for hydrazine in China: $5200/ton