Use of liquid fuel reactors to produce hydrazine for under $500/ton.
0.75-1 ₵/kwh levelized generation cost
Lifetime: 40 years
Planned capacity: 41 mw
Hydrazine production: 1.9 tons per hour
Potential revenue: $81,000,000
Chlore-Alkali membrane electrolyzer: Plant capex: $105,000/tpd $19/ton NaOH/CI ($480 million for 1,680,000 tpy capacity, 15 year before major refurbishment)
Sodium hydroxide: 4.0 ton/ton N2H4: 2500 kwh/ton: $29. (sodium chloride bi-product recycled)
Chlorine: 2.6 ton/ton N2H4: 2500 kwh/ton: $25
0.9 tons NH3 $100/ton: No cost as 240 kg of H2 are produced from electrolyzing sodium chloride
Total: $308/ton N2H4
N2H4 12.58% H2 by weight
Raschig plant cost very minimal: $49/ton N2H4: $12,000,000 for 7,000 tpy (35 year lifetime)
Total electricity consumed: 21,500 kwh/ton N2H4
Salt continuously recycled, sodium hydroxide and chlorine consumed, sodium chloride produced as bi-product of Raschig process then re electrolyzed into sodium hydroxide, closed-loop system!
Net H2 cost: $2.7/kg. PEMFC 2.6x more efficient than SI engine, cost per gallon gasoline equevalent is $1.03/gal!
Current market price for hydrazine in China: $5200/ton
Pochari Technologies has developed a new type of modular submachine gun. The weapon uses a new in-house developed round with a varying length cartridge casing and varying mass bullet depending on whether long-range or sort range operation is desired. The rounds are of the same diameter as to allow the weapon to be fully modular. Full auto fire rates in excess of 1500 rounds per minute are achievable thanks to the piezoelectric firing system. Piezoelectric crystals based on the reverse piezo effect provide high actuation force at very high velocities and are extensively used in the most demanding applications such as high pressure diesel injectors to provide up to five sprays per combustion cycle. The power density of the actuator is very high and adds little to no additional weight over a gas fired system but provides a significant reduction in mechanical complexity and chance of failure. Liquid cooling allows the user to operate the weapon at 1500 rpm for extended periods of time without worrying about barrel warpage due to excessive temperature buildup. The piezoelectric firing systems provides a variable rate of fire, depending on the pressure on the trigger, the rate of fire varies from 100-1500 rpm. A backpack fuel cell power supply provides the electrical current to the piezoelectric crystals and provides pumping power and recycling and active cooling for the glycol cooling system. The magazine is styled after the FN P90 to maximum capacity but with the absence of a 90-degree turn system, allowing for faster fire rates and less mechanical complexity. The weapon can convert from compact submachine gun to long-range rifle and back with simple removal of the barrel module. The weapon is constructed primarily of carbon fiber with the exception of the barrel and firing system. Pochari Technologies’s founder Christophe Pochari plans on manufacturing a prototype of this weapon as soon as funds allow. A 3D CAD model has been developed. The weapon is ideal for high-intensity to low-intensity urban combat in the digitalized battlefield where fuel cell backpack power is critical for mission success. This weapon is also ideal for special forces and law enforcement. The fuel cell is a high-temperature proton exchange membrane using a micro reformer to crack synthetic diesel fuel into hydrogen. Pochari Technologies plans on developing boron based propellants based on nitro substituted borazene, borazine, iminoborane and azaboridine. These boron based explosives display much higher detonation velocity, CJ pressure and cylinder expansion energy than comparable all carbon based materials at corresponding densities.
Pentaborane is an ideal fuel for hypersonic ramjet missiles, afterburning turbojets and conventional rocket engines with dioxygen diflouride as an oxidizer. Despite pentaborane’s outstanding energy density and impulse, turbopumps must be designed to cope with boron oxide formation. Pochari Technologies is actively researching special borane fueled rocket engine turbopumps. Pentaborane can be easily synthesized from diborane and hydrogen via pyrolysis. Typical conditions are 250 C° and a 1:5 diborane/hydrogen ratio. The cost of boron oxide is only $5/kg, reserves are estimated at 1 billion tons. Primary applications will be scramjets and ramjets for the coming hypersonic missile age. Pentaborane, being pyrophoric, gives it an immensely wider flammability range than kerosene, making it highly attractive for high altitude air vehicles.
“The fuel injectors were maintained relatively free from deposits by the atomizing air supplied to the orifice. When the air supply to an individual injector failed, deposits were formed as shown on the injector to the left of bottom center.
The deposits on the afterburner and diffuser walls, the totalpressure rake at the exhaust-nozzle inlet, and the exhaust nozzle are shown in figure 4(b). This photograph, taken immediately after the test, shows the deposits before hydrolysis from atmospheric moisture
occurred. The deposits on the afterburner and diffuser walls consisted
of a thin transparent coat of glass.
The relatively minor boron oxide deposits shown in figure 4 presented no particular obstacle to the use of pentaborane in the afterburner configuration investigated”
Pochari Technologies has invented a revolutionary new type of diesel engine for use in current diesel propulsion applications with hugely improved power density and dramatically improvement emission control. The engine is a conventional piston engine where a single-cylinder serves as two separate combustion chambers. A single-piston reciprocates in a two-stroke cycle providing compression in the opposing chamber each power stroke in the opposite chamber. A single-cylinder, with the same stroke length as a conventional engine, can provide the equivalent amount of power as two cylinders. By eliminating one set of connecting rods, crankshaft, piston and cylinder we can reduce engine weight significantly.
The engine is free of a camshaft, valvetrain and crankshaft, radically improving reliability.
As a two-cycle cannot provide vacuum, air must be forced in at high pressure. Electrically driven high speed 4:1 pressure ratio turbochargers are used. In a two-stroke diesel engine, the “blower” or turbo helps in removing as much exhaust as possible at the end of each power stroke and provides the pressure necessary to fill the chamber with enough oxygen.
The injection system is a conventional common rail.
The engine block is 351 high-temperature Aluminum Alloy. This invention allows for increased volumetric power density, and most importantly, a gravimetric power density increase by a factor of 170%.
This technology will be most attractive for weight and volume sensitive applications, such as marine propulsion. As the engine is a “free piston”, rather than using a hydraulic piston, a permanent magnet motor linear generator is used to directly power electric motors which can be connected to each drive axle eliminating the transmission and providing instant torque at low speed.
The lubrication system is proprietary but provides greatly enhanced lubrication over conventional crankcase fed cylinder lubrication as oil is injected directly underneath the oil ring through multiple small orifices at a constant rate and pressure.
Targeted BSFC is below 0.35 lbs/hp/hr. Power density is estimated to be approximately 2 hp/lb.
CR is 17:1.
No EGR and SCR is needed thanks to the stoichiometric operation enabling conventional platinum monolith TWC technology to reduce by up to NOx 99.95% with the addition of a small amount of hydrogen gas as a reducing agent. The absence of C-C bonds in DME provide near soot-free combustion, eliminating the need for a DPF. Concerns about injector wear as DME possesses much lower lubricity are alleviated by the use of specially designed hydrogen style injectors. Dimethly Ether is an ideal fuel for diesel engine as its cetane number exceeds that of conventional diesel fuel. The fuel is clean burning, energy dense an easily liquefied at moderate pressures, 7.5 bar.
This engine will greatly exceed all modern diesel emission standards while providing efficient trouble-free service to operators. For those interested, Please contact Christophe Pochari.