Pochari Technologies has developed a new type of modular submachine gun. The weapon uses a new in-house developed round with a varying length cartridge casing and varying mass bullet depending on whether long-range or sort range operation is desired. The rounds are of the same diameter as to allow the weapon to be fully modular. Full auto fire rates in excess of 1500 rounds per minute are achievable thanks to the piezoelectric firing system. Piezoelectric crystals based on the reverse piezo effect provide high actuation force at very high velocities and are extensively used in the most demanding applications such as high pressure diesel injectors to provide up to five sprays per combustion cycle. The power density of the actuator is very high and adds little to no additional weight over a gas fired system but provides a significant reduction in mechanical complexity and chance of failure. Liquid cooling allows the user to operate the weapon at 1500 rpm for extended periods of time without worrying about barrel warpage due to excessive temperature buildup. The piezoelectric firing systems provides a variable rate of fire, depending on the pressure on the trigger, the rate of fire varies from 100-1500 rpm. A backpack fuel cell power supply provides the electrical current to the piezoelectric crystals and provides pumping power and recycling and active cooling for the glycol cooling system. The magazine is styled after the FN P90 to maximum capacity but with the absence of a 90-degree turn system, allowing for faster fire rates and less mechanical complexity. The weapon can convert from compact submachine gun to long-range rifle and back with simple removal of the barrel module. The weapon is constructed primarily of carbon fiber with the exception of the barrel and firing system. Pochari Technologies’s founder Christophe Pochari plans on manufacturing a prototype of this weapon as soon as funds allow. A 3D CAD model has been developed. The weapon is ideal for high-intensity to low-intensity urban combat in the digitalized battlefield where fuel cell backpack power is critical for mission success. This weapon is also ideal for special forces and law enforcement. The fuel cell is a high-temperature proton exchange membrane using a micro reformer to crack synthetic diesel fuel into hydrogen. Pochari Technologies plans on developing boron based propellants based on nitro substituted borazene, borazine, iminoborane and azaboridine. These boron based explosives display much higher detonation velocity, CJ pressure and cylinder expansion energy than comparable all carbon based materials at corresponding densities.
Pentaborane is an ideal fuel for hypersonic ramjet missiles, afterburning turbojets and conventional rocket engines with dioxygen diflouride as an oxidizer. Despite pentaborane’s outstanding energy density and impulse, turbopumps must be designed to cope with boron oxide formation. Pochari Technologies is actively researching special borane fueled rocket engine turbopumps. Pentaborane can be easily synthesized from diborane and hydrogen via pyrolysis. Typical conditions are 250 C° and a 1:5 diborane/hydrogen ratio. The cost of boron oxide is only $5/kg, reserves are estimated at 1 billion tons. Primary applications will be scramjets and ramjets for the coming hypersonic missile age. Pentaborane, being pyrophoric, gives it an immensely wider flammability range than kerosene, making it highly attractive for high altitude air vehicles.
“The fuel injectors were maintained relatively free from deposits by the atomizing air supplied to the orifice. When the air supply to an individual injector failed, deposits were formed as shown on the injector to the left of bottom center.
The deposits on the afterburner and diffuser walls, the totalpressure rake at the exhaust-nozzle inlet, and the exhaust nozzle are shown in figure 4(b). This photograph, taken immediately after the test, shows the deposits before hydrolysis from atmospheric moisture
occurred. The deposits on the afterburner and diffuser walls consisted
of a thin transparent coat of glass.
The relatively minor boron oxide deposits shown in figure 4 presented no particular obstacle to the use of pentaborane in the afterburner configuration investigated”
Pochari Technologies has invented a revolutionary new type of diesel engine for use in current diesel propulsion applications with hugely improved power density and dramatically improvement emission control. The engine is a conventional piston engine where a single-cylinder serves as two separate combustion chambers. A single-piston reciprocates in a two-stroke cycle providing compression in the opposing chamber each power stroke in the opposite chamber. A single-cylinder, with the same stroke length as a conventional engine, can provide the equivalent amount of power as two cylinders. By eliminating one set of connecting rods, crankshaft, piston and cylinder we can reduce engine weight significantly.
The engine is free of a camshaft, valvetrain and crankshaft, radically improving reliability.
As a two-cycle cannot provide vacuum, air must be forced in at high pressure. Electrically driven high speed 4:1 pressure ratio turbochargers are used. In a two-stroke diesel engine, the “blower” or turbo helps in removing as much exhaust as possible at the end of each power stroke and provides the pressure necessary to fill the chamber with enough oxygen.
The injection system is a conventional common rail.
The engine block is 351 high-temperature Aluminum Alloy. This invention allows for increased volumetric power density, and most importantly, a gravimetric power density increase by a factor of 170%.
This technology will be most attractive for weight and volume sensitive applications, such as marine propulsion. As the engine is a “free piston”, rather than using a hydraulic piston, a permanent magnet motor linear generator is used to directly power electric motors which can be connected to each drive axle eliminating the transmission and providing instant torque at low speed.
The lubrication system is proprietary but provides greatly enhanced lubrication over conventional crankcase fed cylinder lubrication as oil is injected directly underneath the oil ring through multiple small orifices at a constant rate and pressure.
Targeted BSFC is below 0.35 lbs/hp/hr. Power density is estimated to be approximately 2 hp/lb.
CR is 17:1.
No EGR and SCR is needed thanks to the stoichiometric operation enabling conventional platinum monolith TWC technology to reduce by up to NOx 99.95% with the addition of a small amount of hydrogen gas as a reducing agent. The absence of C-C bonds in DME provide near soot-free combustion, eliminating the need for a DPF. Concerns about injector wear as DME possesses much lower lubricity are alleviated by the use of specially designed hydrogen style injectors. Dimethly Ether is an ideal fuel for diesel engine as its cetane number exceeds that of conventional diesel fuel. The fuel is clean burning, energy dense an easily liquefied at moderate pressures, 7.5 bar.
This engine will greatly exceed all modern diesel emission standards while providing efficient trouble-free service to operators. For those interested, Please contact Christophe Pochari.
Ammonia is stored as a liquid under pressure (10 bar) in puncture-resistant aluminum tanks lined with a layer of UHMWPE.
The ammonia is then sent to the cracker heated by combusting a small amount of hydrogen. This hydrogen is combusted directly inside a module consisting of the reactor surrounded by high temperature vacuum panel insulation manufactured by Nanopore™ in New Mexico. The use of low thermal conductivity insulation allows for minimal heat loss, maximing reactor efficiency. Very low nitrogen oxide emissions are generated from the combustion due to the relatively low flame temperature required, the gas is passed to a micro three-way catalytic converter since the combustion is stoichiometric. NOx emissions are near zero. Air is supplied to the combustor via a small electrically driven rotary compressor, similar to a turbocharger. The cracker operates at 600-650 C, leaving 5-500 ppm of residual ammonia depending on the exact operating temperature, GHSV, and operating pressure. The catalyst used is a commercially available cesium promoted ruthenium on alumina micro powder catalyst marketed as HYPERMEC™ 10010 and manufactured by Acta S.P.A in Italy. The reactor utilizes proven microstructured technology manufactured by Fraunhofer ICT-IMM in Germany. The stability of the catalyst is over 99% over 900 hours.
The high-temperature gas exiting the reactor consisting of 75% hydrogen and 25% nitrogen by volume is sent to a liquid-cooled heat exchanger, similar to an EGR cooler on a diesel engine. The temperature is reduced to 80 C. At this point, the cool gas is sent to an acid impregnated carbon-based absorbent (Calgon Carbon Ammonasorb™) to purify to below 10 ppb. At this point, only nitrogen remains, which is reduced to less than 1% concentration using a polymeric membrane separator. Preferably, the polymeric membrane separation occurs prior to the ammonia purification, reducing the volume of the gas inside the purifier module. The polymeric membrane is mature technology, currently widely used for nitrogen production. Manufactueres include Ube and AIRRANE.
The now highly purified cool gas stream can enter the proton exchange membrane fuel cell, generating electricity at an efficiency of 59%. 25% of the hydrogen is required to provide the heat to reform the ammonia, the resultant net system efficiency is 45%. The entire system operates at 3.5 bar, this pressure is chosen to provide sufficient pressure to operate the nitrogen membrane separator, which is designed for pressures of 7 bar, the very high sensitivities of N2/H2 allow for easy separation. A lower pressure is favored in the decomposition reactor, thus a pressure below that ideal for gas separation is chosen as a compromise.
Since ammonia is caustic and poses major health risks if released in high concentrations, the tanks are puncture-resistant, which depending on the liner thickness, can prevent a .50 caliber bullet from penetrating from a 15-meter distance. The puncture-resistance comes from the high molecular weight polyethylene liner.
The power system has a wide range of applications, ranging from small generators to large scale heavy-duty propulsion.
Pochari Systems is designing, manufacturing and commercializing the world’s first highly compact ammonia cracker to produce hydrogen on demand from liquid ammonia for hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicles or fuel cells.
The cracker uses 4% wt Ruthenium and 20% wt Cesium promoted aluminum oxide supported catalysts in a microchannel configuration.
cracker specifications are based on Engelbrecht and Chiuta 2018,
Chiuta and Everson 2015 and 2016, Di Carlo and Vecchione 2014, and
Hill and Murciano 2014.
The activation energy is as low as 49 kJ/mol of NH3 with high cesium promoter loadings on CNT support, which translates into only 5 KW of heat energy per kg of H2 reformed per hour, allowing for over 100% of the required energy for decomposition being provided by exhaust heat from the engine.
The amount of ruthenium and cesium needed is very minimal, only 1 gram 5 grams respectively is required to reform 1 kg of hydrogen per hour at the desired efficiency and power density.
Cesium is critical in the cracking process as it allowes high conversion of ammonia at lower exhaust temperatures, minimzing unburned ammonia emissions.
Cesium reserves are estimated to be 84,000 tons, with Ruthenium reserves 11,300 tons, since 5x more cesium is used than Ruthenium, the reserves allow for the production of billions of medium-sized car crackers.
half of the cost of the cracker is found in manufacturing, with the
balance comprising raw materials.
Forming the microchannels from a solid metal block is performed by wire electrical discharge machining.
and packing of the catalyst inside these tiny grooves completes the
manufacturing process of a microreactor. Microreactor technology can
be thought of as relatively simple compared to battery manufacturing
as an example. The only complexities and difficulties arise from the
very small dimensions
These small dimensions found in microreactors (as little as 0.15 mm x 0.25 mm) requires elaborate and costly machinery to fabricate, but nonetheless, the cost of the cracker will be approximately $1000-2000 per kg-hour of capacity at high production volumes, of which 50% represents material costs at current raw material market prices.
The ammonia cracker is located on the exhaust manifold for hydrogen combustion engines, utilizing engine exhaust heat supplying 100% of cracker energy needs, with hydrogen combustion providing the balance.
The volume of the ammonia cracker for 12 kg/hr, sufficient for the average fuel flow used by a class-8 semi-truck fully loaded at highway speed, takes up only 6 liters, and weighs less than 10 kg!
The cracker is configured in a modular fashion. The modules consist of a housing, each consisting of a stack of microchannel plates. The module is placed directly outside of each exhaust outlet on the cylinder head, allowing the very hot exhaust gas to pass directly into the microchannels before cooling down. This allows heating the catalyst bed to provide the necessary activation energy. Each module is connect to four rails, supplying both gaseous ammonia to the cracker, and passing reform gas to the purifier. The two smaller rails provide air and hydrogen to provide heat during startup.
Reactor type: Micro-channel
Catalyst: 4% Wt Ru, 20% Wt Cs promoted on CNT
Total catalyst mass per kg hour H2 reformed: 25 grams
Ru Catalyst required per Kg hour H2 reformed: 1 grams
Ce Catalyst promoter per Kg hour H2 reformed: 5 grams
Gravimetric density: 0.50 kg/kg H2-hr
Volumetric density: 0.5 L/kg H2-hr
Energy consumption: 5.5-6 kw/kg H2-hr
Percent of reforming energy from exhaust heat: 100%
Additional hydrogen consumed for dissociation: 0% of fuel flow
Ammonia hydrogen density: 103 kg/m3
Ammonia consumption: 6 kg liquid NH3/kg H2-hr
Startup time: 10 minutes
Cost per kg hr capacity: $2000
Ruthenium price: $8000/kg
Cesium price: $30,000/kg
Carbon nanotube price per kg: $10,000